Can HR deal with Problems of Discrimination that Arise from Sexual Orientation and Religion?

Prashant Singh


Since the issue of combating sexual and religious discrimination has long been beyond the scope of purely theoretical discussions and has become practical in nature, it is crucial to study these concepts in more detail, from a new perspective. Discrimination is reflected in many aspects, but restrictions on the rights of a potential (or current) employee and bias are manifested the most acutely at work, in dealing with human resources. Therefore, this study aims to determine whether HR management is effective enough in protecting the rights of the employee. If certain shortcomings are identified, solutions will be proposed. Many pieces of research will not only be analyzed and systematized but also transformed into a kind of methodology that can be used for the prevention of sexual and religious discrimination (it seems unreasonable to limit oneself to stating the existing problem and to occupy the academic “space” without offering solutions). It is hoped that existing gaps will be filled in with new knowledge and the study, in general, will stimulate fruitful scholar accomplishments in the future. Having researched the literature, we identified that the issue proposed for study should be analyzed (and solved) through the prism of various social and behavioral theories, as well as through Freud's theory of group psychology. In addition, the results of the study show that HR management is only one factor that affects the level of protection of employees from sexual and religious discrimination. This element can be effective only in combination with others, which will be reflected in the research.

Keywords: Social psychology theories, organizational culture, knowledge management, geographical factors, legislative improvement.

Full Text:



Adam, I., & Rea, A. (2017). The three “I”s of workplace accommodation of muslim religious practices: Instrumental, internal, and informal. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 41(15), 2711–2730.

Bimrose, J. (2004). Sexual harassment in the workplace: An ethical dilemma for career guidance practice? British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 32(1), 109–121.

Chan, P.C. W. (2005). The lack of sexual orientation anti-discrimination legislation in Hong Kong: Breach of international and domestic legal obligations. The International Journal of Human Rights, 9(1), 69–106.

Clain, S.H., & Leppel, K. (2001). An investigation into sexual orientation discrimination as an explanation for wage differences. Applied Economics, 33(1), 37–47.

Crisp, B.R., & Dinham, A. (2019). The role of occupational standards in workplace religious literacy. Journal of Beliefs & Values, 41(3), 358–370.

di Marco, D., Hoel, H., & Lewis, D. (2021). Discrimination and exclusion on grounds of sexual and gender identity: Are LGBT people’s voices heard at the workplace? The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 24(18), 1–6.

Dingley, J., & Morgan, J. (2005). Job discrimination in Northern Ireland and the law in relation to the theory of ethnic nationalism. National Identities, 7(1), 51–77.

Ferfolja, T., & Hopkins, L. (2013). The complexities of workplace experience for lesbian and gay teachers. Critical Studies in Education, 54(3), 311–324.

Ghumman, S., Ryan, A.M., Barclay, L.A., & Markel, K.S. (2013). Religious discrimination in the workplace: A review and examination of current and future trends. Journal of Business and Psychology, 28(4), 439–454.

Gilbert, D. (2004). Racial and religious discrimination: The inexorable relationship between schools and the individual. Intercultural Education, 15(3), 253–266.

Götz, S., & Blanz, M. (2018). Hidden discrimination in front of social work’s own door: The case of homosexual employees at Christian social services in Germany. European Journal of Social Work, 23(2), 239–252.

Hayes, A. (2021, June 17). Herd instinct. Investopedia.

Hennekam, S., Peterson, J., Tahssain-Gay, L., & Dumazert, J. P. (2019). Recruitment discrimination: How organizations use social power to circumvent laws and regulations. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 32(10), 2213–2241.

Jones, K.P., Arena, D.F., Nittrouer, C. L., Alonso, N. M., & Lindsey, A. P. (2017). Subtle discrimination in the workplace: A vicious cycle. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 10(1), 51–76.

Jones, M., & Williams, M.L. (2013). Twenty years on: Lesbian, gay and bisexual police officers’ experiences of workplace discrimination in England and Wales. Policing and Society, 25(2), 188–211.

Kenton, W. (2020, November 24). Understanding Silo Mentality. Investopedia.

King, E.B., Dawson, J. F., Kravitz, D. A., & Gulick, L. M. V. (2010). A multilevel study of the relationships between diversity training, ethnic discrimination and satisfaction in organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(1), 5–20.

Latham, J.A. (2020). Looking beyond training as a solution to workplace sexual harassment and discrimination. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 13(2), 168–173.

Lawrence, E.R., & King, J.E. (2008). Determinants of religious expression in the workplace. Culture and Religion, 9(3), 251–265.

Martinez, L.R., Ruggs, E.N., Sabat, I.E., Hebl, M.R., & Binggeli, S. (2013). The role of organizational leaders in sexual orientation equality at organizational and federal levels. Journal of Business and Psychology, 28(4), 455–466.

Mogapaesi, T. (2019). Sexual harassment in the workplace and women’s access to justice: Lessons for Botswana from a South African perspective. Commonwealth Law Bulletin, 45(3), 431–453.

Nelson, R.L., Sendroiu, I., Dinovitzer, R., & Dawe, M. (2019). Perceiving discrimination: Race, gender, and sexual orientation in the legal workplace. Law & Social Inquiry, 44(04), 1051–1082.

Ozgener, S. (2007). Diversity Management and Demographic Differences-based Discrimination: The Case of Turkish Manufacturing Industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(3), 621–631.

Palmiotto, M. J., Birzer, M. L., & Smith‐Mahdi, J. (2005). An analysis of discrimination between African‐American and women police officers: Are there differences? Similarities? Criminal Justice Studies, 18(4), 347–364.

Sabia, J.J., Wooden, M., & Nguyen, T.T. (2017). Sexual identity, Same-Sex relationships, and labour market dynamics: New evidence from longitudinal data in australia. Southern Economic Journal, 83(4), 903–931.

Sharma, A. (2016). Managing diversity and equality in the workplace. Cogent Business & Management, 3(1), 1–14.

Toker Gökçe, A. (2013). University students’ perception of discrimination on campus in Turkey. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 35(1), 72–84.

Tye-Williams, S., Carbo, J., D’Cruz, P., Hollis, L. P., Keashly, L., Mattice, C., & Tracy, S. J. (2020). Exploring workplace bullying from diverse perspectives: A journal of applied communication research forum. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 48(6), 637–653.

Willis, P. (2009). From exclusion to inclusion: Young queer workers’ negotiations of sexually exclusive and inclusive spaces in australian workplaces. Journal of Youth Studies, 12(6), 629–651.

Yang, S., & Li, A. (2009). Legal protection against gender discrimination in the workplace in China. Gender & Development, 17(2), 295–308.

Zainiddinov, H. (2016). Racial and ethnic differences in perceptions of discrimination among Muslim Americans. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 39(15), 2701–2721.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

International Journal of Business and Economics is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Based on a work at

Copyright © 2016-2022 International Journal of Business and Economics (IJBE)

ISSN (online) 2545-4137

Disclaimer: Articles on International Journal of Business and Economics (IJBE) have been previewed and authenticated by the Authors before sending for the publication. The Journal, Chief Editor and the editorial board are not entitled or liable to either justify or responsible for inaccurate and misleading data if any. It is the sole responsibility of the Author concerned.