Achutha Jois, Somnath Chakrabarti


Higher education has changed irrevocably with the advent of globalization, internet technologies and modern methods of learning. Educators' thought process is undergoing a sea of change along with transition towards education brand building. Most of the branding frameworks focus on logo design, style and look & feel rather than covering deeper aspects of building a global brand. This study aims to cover broader aspects of global education brand building from the student perspective and identify key issues emerging economy management institutes face while building a global brand. Mixed method approach was adopted to delve deep into issues in building global management education brands from emerging economies. Open-ended unstructured interviews with 18 education experts resulted in the identification of key attributes and antecedents, also validated with a structured literature review. The extensive literature search resulted in more than one thousand academic research papers, while the structured approach selected 107 peer-reviewed academic articles. This study used quantitative methods with random sampling as the main methodology and utilized structured equation modeling to develop the model. This study's key research findings are that prospective students look at immigration to western countries, global opportunities, and globally recognizable education brands as top reasons while selecting education institutes for their higher education needs. This study's generalizability is fairly limited; however, the model can be extrapolated to other fields to test its validity. This paper brings out a branding framework and global brand-building model for higher education management brands.

Keywords: Education Services Marketing, Global Brand Building, Global Marketing, Student Choice making.

Full Text:



Aaker. A., & David. (1991). Managing Brand Equity under What is Brand Equity? Section. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781439188385.

Ackerman, Phillip L., &Maynard G. (1994). Typical Intellectual Engagement and Personality, Reply to Rocklin. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86 (1): pg. 150–153. Doi:10.1037/0022-0663.86.1.150.

Ahmad, S. (2014). Evaluating student satisfaction of quality at international branch campuses. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 488-507.

Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. Ina J. Kuhl and J. Beckmann (Eds.). Action control: From cognition to behavior.

Alan, S., & Gary, J. (2011). Perception, Attribution, and Judgment of Others, Organizational Behaviour: Understanding and Managing Life at Work. Vol.7.

American Marketing Association. (2017). Definitions of Marketing. Retrieved from on 8th October 2021)

Anderson, L., Hibbert, P., Mason, K., & Rivers, C. (2018). Management Education in Turbulent Times. Journal of Management Education, 1–18

Anil, N.K., & Icli, G.E. (2013). MBA Students’ Satisfaction and Loyalty: State vs. Private Universities in Turkey. Trziste / Market, Vol. Xxv (2013), Br. 2, Str. 177–198.

Anita, P., & Kumar, V. (2017). Customer engagement: the construct, antecedents, and consequences. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 45:294–311.

Bartlett, C., A., & Ghoshal, S. (2000).Going Global: Lessons from Late Movers.Harvard Business Review, March-April 2000, pp. 132–142.

Berry, L.L., & Parasuraman, A. (1991). Marketing Services: Competing Through Quality. New York: Free Press, ISBN 978-0-02-903079-0.

Bodo, B.S. (2020). Why Business Schools Need Radical Innovations: Drivers and Development Trajectories, Journal of Marketing Education, Vol. 42(2), 93–107.

Chapleo, C. (2015). An exploration of branding approaches in UK universities. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. February2015.

Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M.B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: The role of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65(2), 81–93.

Chinta, R., Mansureh, K., & Janelle, E. (2016). A conceptual framework for evaluating higher education institutions. International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 30 Iss 6.

Cova, & Bernard. (1997). Continuity and Consumption: Towards a Detailing of the 'Linking Value’ of Product or Services. European Journal of Marketing, 31(3–4), 297–316.

Dao, Mai Thi Ngoc, & Thorpe, A. (2015). What factors influence Vietnamese students’ choice of university? International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 29, Iss 5 pp. 666–681.

Dawar, N., & Frost, T. (1999). Competing with Giants: Survival Strategies for Local Companies in Emerging Markets. Magazine. Harvard Business Review, March-April, 1999.

Delaney, J.A., & Doyle, W.R. (2011). State Spending on Higher Education: Testing the Balance Wheel over Time. Journal of Education Finance, 36(4), 343–368.

Drewes, Torben, & Michael, C. (2006). How Do Students Choose a University?: An Analysis of Applications to Universities in Ontario, Canada.Research in Higher Education, Vol. 47, No. 7 (Nov 2006), pp.781–800.

Fabio Vinicius de Macedo Bergamo, Antonio Carlos Giuliani, Silvia Helena Carvalho, Ramos Valladão de Camargo, Felipe Zambaldi, Mateus Canniatti Ponchio. (2012). Student loyalty based on relationship quality: an analysis on higher education institutions. Brazilian Business Review, Vitória, v. 9, n. 2, Art.2, p.26– 46, apr–jun 2012.

Farris, Paul W, Neil T, Bendle, Phillip E. Pfeifer, & David J. Reibstein. (2010). Marketing Metrics: The Definitive Guide to Measuring Marketing Performance. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-13-705829-2.

Fazio, R.H. (1986). How do attitudes guide behavior? In R. M. Sorrentino and E. T. Higgins (Eds.).The handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior. pp 204–243, New York: Guilford Press.

Fishbein, Martin. (1967). A behavior theory approach to the relations between beliefs about an object and the attitude toward the object, Readings in attitude theory and measurement. New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 389-400.

Fishbein, Martin, and Icek Ajzen. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior. Addison-Wesley.

Fornell, Claes, & David F. Larcker. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18: pp39–50.

Reichheld, F. (1996). The Loyalty Effect.

Gatfield, T., Barker, M., & Graham, P. (1999). Measuring communication impact for university advertising materials.Corporate Communications: An international Journal, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp.73–79.

Gatfield, Terry & Ching-huei Chen. (2006). Measuring Student Choice Criteria Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour: The Case of Taiwan, Australia, UK, and USA.Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 16:1, 77–95, DOI: 10.1300/J050v16n01_04.

Gerald Albaum, David K. Tse, George C. Hozier Jr., & Kenneth G. Baker.(2003).Extending Marketing Activities and Strategies from Domestic to Foreign Markets.Journal of Global Marketing, 16:3, 105–129.

Goff, Maynard, & Phillip L. Ackerman. (1992). Personality-Intelligence relations: assessment of typical intellectual engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84 (4): 537–552.

Gozukara, I., & Colakoglu, N. (2016). A Research on Generation Y Students:Brand Innovation, Brand Trust and Brand Loyalty. International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research (IJBMER), Vol 7(2), 2016, 603–611.

Hesham El-Rewini & Mostafa Abd-El-Barr. (2005). Advanced Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing. John Wiley and Sons, p. 66, ISBN 978-0-471-47839-3.

Hsia, H.J. (1988). Mass Communications Research Methods: A Step-by-Step Approach.Routledge.

Hulten, B. (2017). Branding by the five senses: A sensory branding framework. Journal of Brand Strategy, Vol.6, No.3, winter 2017–18

Ilie, C., Fornes, G., Cardoza, G., & Quintana, J.C.M. (2020). Development of Business Schools in Emerging Markets: Learning through Adoption and Adaptation, Sustainability, 12, 8448. Doi: 10.3390/su12208448

Iqbal, M.J., Rasli, A.B., & Hassan. I. (2020). University Branding: A Myth or a Reality.Pak. J. Commer. Soc. Sci., 2012, Vol. 6 (1), 168–184.

James A. Muncy. (2008). The orientation evaluation matrix (OEM): Are students customers or products? Marketing Education Review, Volume 18, Number 3 (Fall 2008).

Jois, A., & Chakrabarti, S. (2021). Globalization Journey of Brand by Creating Experience Wave. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, Volume 25, Issue 5.

Judson, K.M., Aurand, T.W., Gorchels, L., & Gordon, G.L. (2009). Building a University Brand from Within: University Administrators’ Perspectives of Internal Branding.Services Marketing Quarterly, 30:54–68.

Jurse, M. (2011). A Market Perspective of Aligning University, Business Education in Transition Countries with the Emerging Globalisation of Higher Education.Transformations in Business and Economics, Vol. 10, No. 2 (23), pp.104–124.

Kapferer, J.N. (1992). Strategic Brand Management. Kogan Page: London, 1992

Kavaratzis, M. (2007). Cities and their brands: Lessons from corporate branding. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 5, 26 – 37. doi: 10.1057/pb.2008.3.

Kessler, Sheila. (2003). Customer satisfaction toolkit for ISO 9001:2000.Milwaukee, Wis.: ASQ Quality Press. ISBN 0-87389-559-2.

Keller, & Kevin, L. (1993). Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, 57 (1), pp 1–22. Doi:10.2307/1252054, ISSN 0022-2429, JSTOR 1252054.

Kirkpatrick, D.L., & Kirkpatrick, J.D. (1994). Evaluating Training Programs. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Kuvykaite, R., & Mascinskiene, J. (2010). Transformation of a National Brand into an International Brand.Inzinerine Ekonomika-Engineering Economics, 21(4),446-455.

Lau, G.T., & Lee, S.H. (1999). Consumers trust in a brand and the link to brand loyalty. Journal of Market-Focused Management, 4(4): 341–370.

Levitt, T. (1983). The Globalization of Markets. Magazine. Harvard Business Review, May, 1983.

Martin, M.C., Moriuchi, E., Ronda, M.S., Jill, D.M., & Charlene, N. (2015).The Importance of University Traditions and Rituals in Building Alumni BrandCommunities and Loyalty. International Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, Volume 19, Number 3.

Pringle, J.D. (2014). Faculty Perception of Branding – A Multi-case Qualitative Study.DBA Thesis, University of Bath, October, 2014.

QS Global MBA Rankings. (2019). Annual Report. Retrieved from (accessed on 20 December 2020).

Ramzan, M. (2015). University Evaluation: an important indicator towards quality in higher education. Journal of Research in Social Sciences-JRSS, Vol.3 No.1, pp. 2306–112X.

Riccardo, R., Lamberto, Z., Massimiliano, M.P., & Cristiano, C. (2017). Exploring the Antecedents of Brand Loyalty and Electronic Word of Mouth in Social-Media-Based Brand Communities: Do Gender Differences Matter? Journal of Global Marketing, 30:3, 147-160. DOI: 10.1080/08911762.2017.1306899

Ross, Edward, Alsworth. (1902). Recent tendencies in Sociology – II. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Pg.82-110

Schacter, D.L., Gilbert, D.T., & Wegner, D.M. (2011). Psychology (2nd Edition). New York: Worth.

Stone, B.E. (2012). Experience, Problematization, and the Question of the Contemporary. The Pluralist, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Fall 2012), pp. 44–50.

Syed, Zamberi, Ahmad& Frederick, Robert, Buchanan. (2015). Motivation factors in students decision to study at international branch campuses in Malaysia.Studies in Higher Education.DOI:10.1080/03075079.2015.1067604.

Syed Zamberi Ahmad, Robert Buchanan, F., & Norita Ahmad. (2016). Examination of students’ selection criteria for international education. International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 30 Issue 6, pp.1088–1103.

Taewon, Suh and Karen H. Smith. (2008). Attitude toward Globalization and Country- of-Origin Evaluations: Toward a Dynamic Theory. Journal of Global Marketing, 21:2, 127-139. DOI: 10.1080/08911760802135202

Teng, & Ssu-yu. (1943). Chinese Influence on The Western Examination System. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 7 (4): 267-312. Doi: 10.2307/2717830. ISSN 0073-0548, JSTOR 2717830.

Tina, Vukasovic. (2016). An Empirical Investigation of Brand Equity: A Cross-Country Validation Analysis. Journal of Global Marketing.


Turner. (1893). The Significance of the Frontier in American History. American Historical Association U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration 1999 report. Retrieved from (accessed on 20th December 2020).

Von Stumm, Sophie, Hell, Benedikt, Chamorro-Premuzic, & Tomas. (2011). The Hungry Mind: Intellectual Curiosity Is the Third Pillar of Academic Performance. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6 (6): 574–588. Doi:10.1177/1745691611421204.

Wilkins, S., LanHe, Li Zhu, & Elmoshnib, M. (2018). The resilience of the MBA in emerging economies: student motivations for wanting an MBA in China and the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management. DOI:10.1080/1360080X.2018.1462439

Werner, R., & Kumar, V. (2002). The mismanagement of customer loyalty. Harvard Business Review, 80 (7): 86–95. PMID 12140857.

Wong, J. (2010). Using a Brand Identity Index for Relevancy in Teaching Collegiate Marketing. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics.

Woo, S.E., Harms, P.D., & Kuncel, N.R. (2007). Integrating personality and intelligence: Typical intellectual engagement and need for cognition. Personality and Individual Differences. 43 (6): 1635–1639.

Ya-Hsin, H., Ya-hei, H., Suh-Yueh, C., & Wenchang, F. (2014). Is Brand Awareness a Marketing Placebo. International Journal of Business and Information, 9 (1), pp. 29–60.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Business and Economics

© 2016-2023 International Journal of Business and Economics (IJBE)

ISSN (online) 2545-4137

Disclaimer: Articles on International Journal of Business and Economics (IJBE) have been previewed and authenticated by the Authors before sending for the publication. The Journal, Chief Editor and the editorial board are not entitled or liable to either justify or responsible for inaccurate and misleading data if any. It is the sole responsibility of the Author concerned.