Ik-Whan Kwon, Sung-Ho Kim


A lack of standard reporting systems on Olympic medal counts and subsequent rankings raises confusion among spectators. Ranking, based on inconsistent measures by IOC and other reporting organizations, has hampered scholarly investigations in search for objective, fair and inclusive ranking system based on the IOC spirit. This paper attempts to incorporate two additional variables into ranking system, size of participants and wealth of nations. When these two variables are incorporated into the statistical models, different outcomes emerged from what IOC and other organizations reported. Small countries like Bermuda and Kyrgyzstan emerged as strong contenders in the Olympic Games. This approach appears to have addressed fairness and inclusive issues in Olympic Games.

Keywords: IOC, Inclusiveness, Equity, Fibonacci system, adjusted medal counts, Weighed total medals, adjusted medal counts, Friedman’s rank order test.

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